May 18, 2006

The application of sodium chloride (NaCl) can increase nut production, copra weight per nut and copra yield per tree. Research studies on chloride nutrition and fertilization of coconuts were extensively and consistently pursued by researchers since the initial reports in 1972 on the positive responses of young and bearing coconuts to chlorine application. This was the result of adding potassium chloride to palms at the Davao Research Center of the Philippine Coconut Authority in Bago Oshiro, Davao City.

The beneficial role of chlorine in the normal growth, accelerated development, and high nut and copra yields of coconuts was confirmed in the inland coconut-productive areas in Davao. Leaf chlorine is the main factor for copra yields; and for foliar diagnosis (a tool for nutritional diagnosis and predicting fertilizer needs), the critical level of leaf-Cl was found at 0.30% C1 and optimum level at 0.50-0.55% C1. The addition of 60-70 g NaCl/seedling can increase the plant's girth and fresh weight. It was found that seedlings from seednuts produced by NaC1-fertilized parent palms had bigger girths, more leaves, and higher total germination percentage, indicating that chlorine nutrition of parent palms is a positive factor in affecting the conditions of the seedlings in the industry.

Source: Technology, PCARRD publication



May 18, 2006

Protein concentrate is an important component of a dairy ration. However, conventional protein sources are too costly for the backyard farmer. This prompted the search for cheap sources of protein. The utilization of poultry waste as a protein source, either dried or fermented, has been the subject of investigation by several research institutions notably, the Dairy Training and Research Institute (DTRI) at UPLB, UP College of Veterinary Medicine, Bureau of Animal Industry and other research agencies. Studies showed that DPM contains about 22% crude protein and feed cost is reduced by 30% in DPM supplemented rations.

Research conducted at the DTRI-UPLB revealed that at 23% of total ration, DPM was a good supplement to rice straw for dairy cattle from yearling to the end of the first lactation. However, at 45%, DPM rendered the ration unpalatable as manifested by poor intake, hence, stunted growth of the animals. Molasses is an important indigent in rice straw-DPM ration for improved palatability.


1. Poultry manure which is free from bedding materials is collected and sundried for 3 days to reduce the moisture content to 15%. For this purpose, manure that is less than 2 months in storage is preferable.

2. The dried manure is pounded and mixed with concentrate ingredients, and molasses. The resulting mixture is blended with rice straw to form a complete ration:

Ingredient % dry matter

rice straw 35

DFM 23

Ipil-ipil 22

Molasses and others 20

Source: "Dried Poultry Manure for Dairy Cattle Feeding," PCARRD-DOST


May 17, 2006

Raw materials:

Rice straw, 500 kg. (sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane leaves as substitutes)


Chicken manure (dried), 15-25%

Urea, 1.5%

Ammonium sulfate, 2%

Lime, 4%

Calcium sulfate, 2-2.5%

Potash, 1.5-2.0% Equipment:

1.5m x 10m x 1m compost bed     
The Growing House 



(1) Preparation of compost
Straw is filed on the compost bed and water is sprinkled as filing is being done until water overflows on the sides. The pile is turned every fourth day. Chicken manure and urea are added on the first turning and ammonium sulfate and 2% lime on the second turning. The lumps formed are broken during the fermentation. Calcium sulfate, potash and the remaining 2% lime is supplemented on the third and last turning. Composting is completed for 16-20 days, depending on the rate of fermentation. 


(2) Bedding-In 


The newly composted materials are placed on shelves to a thickness of 12-15 cm.inside the growing house. The growing house must be enclosed for 5 days to conserve heat and increase the temperature to 55-65° C. 


(3) Planting and Casing


One-half kg. spawns per square meter of the bed are planted. The beds are thencovered with 1.2 cm. soil that is obtained one (1) meter below the surface andpreviously mixed with 1% lime. The growing house is closed for two (2) weeks with occasional checking of spawn run. At a temperature of 17-22° C and a relative humidity of 85-90%, the first crop is harvested 20 days after casing. 


(4) Care and Management

To prevent the contamination of white mold (Monilla sp.), green molds (Penicillinsp.) and blue molds (Trichoderma), the following are employed:

a. Spot spray with Benlate at1 tbsp. per 1/3 galon of water.

b. Spray Azodrin to control millipedes.

c. Spray ferrous sulfate at 200 ppm concentration to induce uniform break or pinhead formation.
d. Spray with Fuxal, a liquid fertilizer at a concentration of 1,000 ppm after the break.
e. Spray with tap water when relative humidity becomes lowe than 75%.



Source:            ITDI (DOST)


May 17, 2006

Chickens maybe infested with roundworms which are indicated by slow growing process. Even the layers can also be infested by roundworms.


It was found by researchers that papaya sap can be given as a drink but it was difficult for poultry raisers to give each chicken when there are so many. Researchers from UPLB tried using finely chopped papaya leaves combined with the feeds for 3 days. Results showed that the worm infestation were controlled and destroyed. Also, powdered tobacco leaves which were dried under the sun may also be used.


Powdered tobacco leaves (2 parts) mixed with 12 parts feed mash and sodium sulfate is a salt solution for discharging chicken roundworms when given for 3 days.


 Source: Technology (PCARRD) Vol. IX, No. 3, 1987


May 17, 2006

Garlic grows well in clay, alluvial and sandy loam soils. Sandy loam, properly applied with fertilizer, generally produces big, compact and heavy bulbs of good quality. Heavier soils such as clay loam also give profitable yields if they are cultivated and fertilized properly. Garlic requires cool weather during the early stage of growth thus it is best to plant them on the months of October and November.

Prepare the pieces of cloves in the afternoon, the day before planting. Carefully separate the cloves from each other, taking care not to injure them. Choose only the big pieces for planting.

Soak the cloves for two minutes in a solution of Malathion (prepared by mixing three tablespoonfuls in five gallons of water). Treating the cloves with Malathion would kill the microscopic mites that cause "tangle top," a common garlic disease. Drain off the solution and put the cloves in a clean container for planting.

Land Preparation:

If the field is weedy and/or the soil surface is very irregular, plow and harrow the land thoroughly to kill weed seeds and to produce a fine, firm, smooth and level surface.

Broadcast the recommended amount of fertilizers and mix thoroughly with the soil before leveling the field. For one hectare, use 125 to 175 kilos each of urea (45-0-0) and 14-14-14 or 12-24-12 NPK fertilizers. Mix the two fertilizers thoroughly. If urea is not available, use 235 to 270 kilos of ammonium sulphate. Mix with 115 to 130 kilos of 14-14-14 or 12-24-12 fertilizers.

After applying the fertilizers and leveling the field, spread rice straw evenly throughout the entire paddy to a thickness of about 5 cms. Irrigate the field just enough to moist the soil. In a few days, the field is ready for planting.

In planting, mark the rows with the use of parallel lines of string spaced 20 cms. apart and placed just on top of the straw mulch. Hold the clove between the thumb and forefinger and set one-fourth of the clove into the soil. Then press the soil slightly but firmly towards the clove. Plant the cloves at intervals of 20 cms. in the row.

Garlic does not need much irrigation. As long as there is sufficient soil moisture, bulb formation would be normal.

The plants are ready to be harvested as soon as three-fourths of the tops or leaves become fully ripe or dry. Lift the matured plants gently from the ground and then arrange the direct heat of the sun.

Pests and Diseases:
The important pests of garlic are mites and cut worms. Cut worms can be controlled by spraying the plants with solutions of: EPN-300 at three tablespoonfuls in five gallons of water plus sticker; and Imidan 50 W.P. at three tablespoonfuls in five gallons water plus sticker. Against mites, use Tedion V-18 at three tablespoonfuls of water. Spray the plants once a week. The most serious diseases of garlic are Tangle Top and Pink Root which can be prevented only by planting resistant varieties.

Source: Phil. Farmers' Journal March 1981


May 17, 2006

Gabi is one of the major root crops grown throughout the country. It can be grown almost anywhere, upland or lowland. Land preparation and planting:

1. Plow the field twice to loosen the soil.

2. Harrow the field in a criss-cross manner to break the soil clods.

3. Make furrows at a distance of 75 cm. Plant in the furrows. For irregular and hilly areas, plant in holes.

4. For upland culture, plant the seed pieces 7 to 10 cm. deep in the furrows, at a 50 cm. distance between plants. When holes are prepared instead of furrows, slip the seed pieces into the holes and cover partially leaving the hollow around the plant.

5. For best results, select a field with alluvial loam soil.


The amount and kind of fertilizer to use vary from place to place.

1. Apply 60-60-60 kg. of NPK/ha. to yield 30 tons/ha.

2. Use manure and compost when inorganic fertilizer is not available.

3. Mix organic fertilizer with the soil during land preparation and allow to decompost for 1 to 2 weeks before planting.


Gabi plants should be harvested only when fully mature, that is when the leaves start yellowing and drying up. The mother plant is carefully lifted cut of the ground, clinging soil is removed from the soil, and the vegetative portion cut off.

Source: Infoscience, Vol II, No. 1, 1982


May 16, 2006

Materials needed: )

Grated coconut — 1 kilo)

Refined sugar — 600 gms. )

Glacial acetic acid — 325 c (available in drugstores) )

Coconut water — ½ liter)

Ordinary water — 12 liters)

Nata starter — 2 liters (available at ITDI)


1. Extract the cream from the coconut, strain through a cheesecloth.

2. Mix all ingredients.

3. Transfer to big mouthed clean jars and allow around 2-3 inches in height of the liquid.

4. Cover with a clean cheesecloth. The culture is allowed to grow at room temperature for 15 days or more. Note: Do not move the jars during growth period.

5. Harvest is ready after 15 days or more, making sure that all conditions are asceptic so as to enable one to reuse the remaining liquid which serves as starter for succeeding preparations.

6. Dessert Making: The "nata" is cut into cubes and is subjected to a series of boiling with fresh water until acidity is totally removed. One kilo of refined sugar is added for every kilo of nata and are mixed. It is brought to boiling until the "nata" cubes become transparent.

Source: Technology developed by: ITDI (DOST)