SIGN OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN SOIL

June 6, 2006

Nitrogen

1.  Stunted growth
seen in the size and shape of the leaves.

2.   Yellowing
of the leaves toward the bottom of plant while those toward
the top are green.

3.   Leaves
are pale to yellow until they get dried.

4.   Formerly
thick leaves becomes thinner

 

Excess 

1.  Over grown
leaves

2.  soft body,
water and attracts insects and diseases

 

Phosphorus

1.  The plant does
not grow.

2.  Leaves are pale
, then turn dark green.

3.  Red stains
appear on the leaves, or dark red or purple at the base or
middle of the leaves.

4.  Leaves turn
light ash green with burnt edges if the deficiency is
severe.

 

Potassium

1.  Leaves turn ash
gray, especially toward the end.

2.  Stems are weak,
easily break such as in corn and sorghum

3.  Harvest is
poor

4.  Edges and base
of leaves appear burnt and shriveled, and turn yellow to brown
among mature leaves.

 

Iron

1.  The edges of
the leaves are yellowish; this spreads until only the veins of
the leaves are green.

 

Toxicity:

1.  Leaves turn
yellowish to brown until dry up, or

2.  Until they
become dark brown with course veins

 

Zinc

1.  veins of mature
leaves become silvery

2.  half of the big
veins of the leaves die

3.  leaves get
smaller and change shape

4.  the joints are
shorter and stunted

 

Chlorine

1.  growth of the
plant is stunted

2.  fruit bearing
is poor

3.  the plant gets
yellowish or wilted and dried

4.  color becomes
cooper like

 

 

from: Philippine
Farmer’s Journal Supplement

August
1980


Rules on the application of chemical fertilizers

June 6, 2006

For best result, the
application of the fertilizers must be done in the right way.
To use fertilizer scantily in efforts at thrift only result in
harvest poorer than if no fertilizer had been used.

Manner of applying
fertilizer and lime

A. Lowland
Rice

1. Broadcast the recommended
quantity of phosphate with one-half of the nitrogen
fertilizer. Do this before leveling the rice field before
transplanting seedlings.

2. Broadcast the remaining half
of the nitrogen fertilizer three(3) weeks before the flowering
of the play. Do this when the leaves of the play are
dry.

3. Dry the field first before
broadcasting the fertilizer. Three days after the
broadcasting, irrigate the field little by little.

 

B. Upland
Rice

1. Broadcast all of the
recommended phosphate fertilizer before planting the
palay.

2. Divide the potash into two
parts and the nitrogen into three parts.

3. Mix one part of the potash
to one part nitrogen and broadcast this at the last harrowing
of the field.

4. Mix the half of potash to
one part nitrogen and broadcast four(4) weeks
planting.

5. Broadcast the remaining
nitrogen three(3) weeks before flowering.

 

C. Corn

1. Mix half of the nitrogen to
all of the phosphate and potash fertilizers. Calculate the
amount to be applied for every hill, with the distances of the
plants as guide, or too over all number of hills for every
hectare.

2. Apply the mixed complete
fertilizer mentioned on top of the furrows where the grains of
corn will be planted.

3. Cover the soil with
fertilizer about two (2) inches deep so that the fertilizer
and the planted grain will not soon meet.

4. Plant the grain on top of
this and cover again with soil.

5. Mix up the remaining
nitrogen fertilizer and equal amount of dry powdered
soil.

6. When the plants are
knee-high, put the fertilizer on the hills 3-4 inches away
from the plants.

7. For dry season planting,
apply all the recommended quantity of fertilizer at planting
time, or three (3) weeks after, in the manner
mentioned.

 

D. Tobacco

1. Mix all recommended nitrogen
fertilizer and potash, divide into two parts.

2. Mix one part with all
necessary phosphate fertilizer.

3. Apply the mixed complete
fertilizer on every hill, 3-4 weeks around the base of each
plant, two weeks after transplanting the seedling. Cover the
fertilizer thinly with soil.

4. Apply the remaining mixed
fertilizer 30 days after the first application.

 

E. Peanuts

1. Mix up all recommended kinds
and quantity of fertilizers.

2. Apply these on hills and
where the seeds will be planted.

3. Cover the fertilizer with 2
inches of soil and plant on this the grain of peanut. Cover
again with soil.

 

F. Potatoes

1. Mix up all recommended
amount of superphosphate and Maviate of Potash in one half of
recommend amount of ammonium sulfate.

2. Put the fertilizer on the
hill – three (3) inches at the side and the three (3) inches
below the seedling. Cover the seedling with soil and compact
the soil.

3. Apply the half of the
ammonium sulfate row by row 3-4 inches apart 4-5 weeks after
planting. Cover the fertilizer with 
soil.

From: Principles in the
Application of fertilizers

Bureau of Soils JANUARY
1990


FLOWERING OF PINEAPPLE AND OTHER CROP

June 6, 2006

According to studies at the UP
Los BaƱos, flowering can be induced in some crop even out
season, with the help of calcium carbide . this can be done on
papaya, bananas, coffee, coffee and tomatoes.

Procedure

On pineapple 11 months
old

1. Pound calcium
carbide

2. Put a grain of pound calcium
carbide in the middle of the pineapple crown

3. Pour water into it
while

4. Gently pushing the carbide
to make it reach the youngest leaf or bud

The plant will bear flower
with a month. Commercial flower inducers are available at
the market. Inquire from your agriculturist.

From: PCARRD Monitor April
1983


Salt peter for mango flowering

June 6, 2006

Potassium Nitrate (KNO3),
induces flowering of the mango tree even out of season. This
is effective if the buds are plentiful and the leaves are
brittle and dark green.

 

Formula for
spraying:

10 grams potassium nitrate
for every liter of water

Or 200 grams (KNO3) for
every can (kerosene can)
water

The tree will bear fruit from
the 7-14 days spraying. If no flowers come, spray
again.
If rains after spraying, or the
tree does not flower after 15 days, repeat the
spraying.
If the flowers are abundant but
damaged by the leaf hoppers, spray again after 47-54
days.
Potassium nitrate that is not
pure is dangerous to the plant. Avoid using this if there is
no assurance that the KNO3 is pure. It is also necessary to get
permission from the authorities to use this fertilizer. If
permission is not given, use any of the commercial flower
inducers like:

Agriblum, Rebloom,
Manovit, Mangotone, Miracle blum, Flower Set.
 

From: PCARRD FARMNEWS APRIL
15, 1980


MANGO PRODUCTIVITY

June 6, 2006

The regular spraying of
fertilizers on the mango tree has a big effect on its fruit
bearing, especially the application of fertilizer with
potassium, nitrogen and calcium. It is on these three depends
much so as to flower and bear good fruits. The more
fertilizers, the more fruits there will be.

This was found out in four and
a half (4 1/2) years of research at PCARRD on the mango’s
flowering and fruit bearing with the aid chemical
fertilizers.

 * Philippine Council
for Agricultural Research Development (DOST)

From: Completed R & D
Projects

STII
(ISN-225)


PYRETHRUM FLOWER

June 2, 2006

Is a kind if white
chrysanthemum that grows in high altitudes like the Mountain
province. It contains pyrethrin, a chemical that drives insect
away. The higher the altitude, the stronger is its pyrethrin
content.

The pyrethrin or pesticide
content in this flower is not harmful to humans and is
beneficial to plants like potatoes. It also repels insects’
pests that feed on cultured plants.

Pyrethrin comes from
chrysanthemum leaves.

 

From:
Greenfields


KALINGAG – insect pest repellant

June 2, 2006

The most damaging insect pest
that preys on fruits is the fruitfly. Once it gets into the
flesh of any fruit, it can reproduce and spread wherever that
fruit may be brought. Thus, in efforts of importing countries
to avoid the entrance of this pest into their territories,
strict regulation are imposed on incoming fruits, for instance
our mango.

It was found out by a scientist
from the Bureau of Plant Industry in Quezon that the bark of
the Kalingag attracts insects, especially the fruitfly, thus
facilitate their entrapment.

Procedure:

1. Pulverized the bark of the
bark of the Kalingag tree.

2. Mix the powder in 2% water
solution that is, 2 grams per liter of water.

3. Put this in containers with
traps.

The friutflies will approach
it, especially early in the morning and late
afternoons.

 

 

From: Farming today May
1982