May 18, 2006

Protein concentrate is an important component of a dairy ration. However, conventional protein sources are too costly for the backyard farmer. This prompted the search for cheap sources of protein. The utilization of poultry waste as a protein source, either dried or fermented, has been the subject of investigation by several research institutions notably, the Dairy Training and Research Institute (DTRI) at UPLB, UP College of Veterinary Medicine, Bureau of Animal Industry and other research agencies. Studies showed that DPM contains about 22% crude protein and feed cost is reduced by 30% in DPM supplemented rations.

Research conducted at the DTRI-UPLB revealed that at 23% of total ration, DPM was a good supplement to rice straw for dairy cattle from yearling to the end of the first lactation. However, at 45%, DPM rendered the ration unpalatable as manifested by poor intake, hence, stunted growth of the animals. Molasses is an important indigent in rice straw-DPM ration for improved palatability.


1. Poultry manure which is free from bedding materials is collected and sundried for 3 days to reduce the moisture content to 15%. For this purpose, manure that is less than 2 months in storage is preferable.

2. The dried manure is pounded and mixed with concentrate ingredients, and molasses. The resulting mixture is blended with rice straw to form a complete ration:

Ingredient % dry matter

rice straw 35

DFM 23

Ipil-ipil 22

Molasses and others 20

Source: "Dried Poultry Manure for Dairy Cattle Feeding," PCARRD-DOST



May 16, 2006

Experts suggested an easy way of finding out whether the chickens are being fed correctly.

This is by looking at the floor of the pen to find out whether there are too many or too little feathers scattered around, or looking at the chickens to see whether some of them are already bald due to pecking by the other chickens. The underlying principle is, that the chickens will eat their feathers to get the protein they need. The chickens feathers and their fellow chicken's skins are good sources of protein.

Tips showing when chickens are supplied with more protein are: when the chickens are bald, when chickens are suffering from wounds inflicted by other chickens that peck on them and when less feathers are scattered around. These techniques could easily be adapted to large scale commercial operations where collection of accurate weight and conversion data would not be possible.


Source: Greenfields, July 1980


May 16, 2006

For efficient and productive duck breeding operation, consider the following tips recommended by experts from the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research in Los Baños, Laguna.

1. Maintain the proper ratio of male to female ducks in a breeding shed or kamalig. Put in one drake for every five to 10 female ducks. Keep extra drakes in a separate shed in case some male breeders die of diseases or become unproductive.

2. The drakes can be distinguished from the females by their voice and appearance. Females `quack' while drakes provide a hissing sound. Drakes have curly tail features.

3. If possible, the drakes should be one month older than the female ducks. This is to ensure that the males are ready for mating during the breeding season.

4. Choose drakes and females alike with well-developed
bodies and good conformation. They should be healthy, have a good set of feathers and with keen, alert eyes. Do not select those that are obviously sickly and thin.
Source: Phil. Farmer's Journal March 1981


May 15, 2006

In are search study conducted in Carolina, USA corrective hoof trimming may give an added lactation to the cow. In other words, a good hoof condition is likely to result in a better milk performance for the milking cow.

Walking or mating puts considerable stress on the cow’s
hooves and legs. Herds kept in concrete-floored stalls generally suffer from excessive hoof wear. On the other hand, cows kept in surfaces that are soft often get overgrown hoofs. In either case, the animal suffers. Sometimes the result is lameness, which according to experts may be caused by any of the following predisposing factors. Infection hits hardest when the animal has a wound. According to one professor of Purdue Univ. (USA), animals on high levels of nutrition grow more hoof, which cows on rubber mats have extremely dry hard hooves causing commercial hoof trimmers to charge more for their services. Whenever there is an indication of an incidence of foot rot, the herd should be made to walk through a foot bath containing a solution of two to five percent copper sulphate twice daily. Cows in herds that used foot baths had “better” feet-deeper heels, steeper angles and shorter claws. All these characteristics are indications of healthier, easier to manage animal feet.

< Source: Phil. Farmer’s Journal June 1982


May 15, 2006

Corn cobs can be fed to cattle as forage, but these have to be treated with a chemical to make them more digestible.

A research conducted at the University of Nebraska in USA showed that crossbred steers (young male cattles) fed with corn cobs treated with calcium hydroxide gained twice as much weight as those fed with untreated cobs.

American cattle raisers have been feeding treated corn cobs to their animals.

The commonly-used chemical, however, is sodium hydroxide, which can leave a residue that is potentially harmful to soil, animals and humans.

Calcium hydroxide, on the other hand, is safer and cheaper to use in treating corn cobs as cattle feed.

Source: Phil. Farmer's Journal July 1982


May 11, 2006

According to a study conducted at Souther Mindanao Agricultural Research (Kabacan, North Cotabato) broilers fed with a ration containing five percent banana leaf meal (BLM) registered the highest average weight gain of 1.462 kilos, followed by those given a ration with 10 percent BLM at 1.373 kilos. On the other hand, those given commercial starter mash ration gained an average of 1.289 kilos.

 Source: Phil. Farmer's Journal June 1982