DEHYDRATED VEGETABLE PRODUCTS

February 20, 2007

Because of oversupply, vegetables and fruits in season often wilt and spoil in our
markets. The producers are forced to sell cheap and get only a small profit. By processing and preserving abundant, in season fruits and vegetables, people can sell these at much higher prices during the off-season.

Preservation makes vegetables and fruits more palatable.Here are some of the methods:

A. Dehydrated Carrots

1. Select fresh mature carrots with deep orange color, free from woody fiber.

2. Wash thoroughly in running water.

3. Peel and dice into 4 mm. x 10 mm. x 10 mm. cubes.

4. Arrange in wide nylon or sinamay basket and blanch by exposing to live steam over rapidly boiling water for 3 minutes.

5. Immerse the blanched carrots in cooked cornstarch for one minute.

6. Drain the cornstarch and arrange carrots in trays.

7. Dry in a cabinet dryer at 60-65° C for 7-8 hours, or under the sun until the pieces of carrots show no moisture when pressed between the fingers.

8. Pack in plastic bags and seal.   
 

B. Dehydrated sitaw

1. Cut sitaw into desired lengths.

2. Steam for 5 minutes.

3. Dry in a “forced airdraft oven” at a temperature of 60°.
 

C. Complete dryness is show when it becomes crispy.

Source:          ITDI (DOST)


PROCESS CARABAO’S MILK INTO NUTRITIOUS SNACKS

January 31, 2007

Materials needed:

1 liter carabao’s milk (equiv. to one big Pepsi bottle)
3 cups sugar

Procedure:

1. Sandwich spread

Boil the mixture in a wide-mouth open kettle or frying pan under low heat until    about one-third of the water has evaporated. The mixture will then thicken to a consistency similar to sweetened condensed milk. Store the product in sterilized screw-capped bottles like used coffee bottles or plastic containers.

2. Pastilyas de leche

The mixture is cooked further until it becomes brown. Then, let it cool and mold it into long bars like “tira-tira,” a locally-sold hard caramelized candy. 3. Kesong puti (curd making) The principle behind cheese or curd making is to reduce the milk’s moisture content and then add salt.

Heat one liter of milk to 40° C. If a thermometer is not available, this temperature can be determined by dipping the back of the hand on the surface of the milk. If the heat can still be tolerated for a few minutes, the temperature is just right.

Remove the container from the stove, then add 20 m. of crude rennet extract, prepared by soaking a piece of dried abomasum (one of the four stomachs of cattle, available in slaughterhouses) in warm water and a spoonful of vinegar. In about 30 minutes, the milk will settle and form lumps called curd. Cut the curd into cubes the size of corn kernels, then put these in a container and heat for 30 minutes until they melt. Stir them gently.

Add one tablespoon of salt. Mix thoroughly, cool, leave the container for about five minutes and drain off excess water. Also add one teaspoon of sodium citrate (available in drugstores) to serve as preservative. After thorough mixing, you can then put the cheese-like product in air-tight plastic bags. The curd can be stored for over a week. This curd is cheese.


PROCESS CARABAO’S MILK INTO NUTRITIOUS SNACKS

January 31, 2007

Materials needed:

1 liter carabao’s milk (equiv. to one big Pepsi bottle)
3 cups sugar

Procedure:

1. Sandwich spread

Boil the mixture in a wide-mouth open kettle or frying pan under low heat until    about one-third of the water has evaporated. The mixture will then thicken to a consistency similar to sweetened condensed milk. Store the product in sterilized screw-capped bottles like used coffee bottles or plastic containers.

2. Pastilyas de leche

The mixture is cooked further until it becomes brown. Then, let it cool and mold it into long bars like “tira-tira,” a locally-sold hard caramelized candy. 3. Kesong puti (curd making) The principle behind cheese or curd making is to reduce the milk’s moisture content and then add salt.

Heat one liter of milk to 40° C. If a thermometer is not available, this temperature can be determined by dipping the back of the hand on the
surface of the milk. If the heat can still be tolerated for a few minutes, the temperature is just right.

Remove the container from the stove, then add 20 m. of crude rennet extract, prepared by soaking a piece of dried abomasum (one of the our stomachs of cattle, available in slaughterhouses) in warm water and a spoonful of vinegar. In about 30 minutes, the milk will settle and form umps called curd. Cut the curd into cubes the size of corn kernels, then put these in a container and heat for 30 minutes until they melt. Stir them gently.

Add one tablespoon of salt. Mix thoroughly, cool, leave the container for about five minutes and drain off excess water. Also add one teaspoon of odium citrate (available in drugstores) to serve as preservative. After thorough mixing, you can then put the cheese-like product in air-tight lastic bags. The curd can be stored for over a week. This curd is cheese.


BURONG ISDA

January 31, 2007

Product description:
Burong isda is a product from salted fish with fermented rice.

Raw materials:

1 kilo fish (dalag or hito)

2/3 cup salt

3 1/3 cup rice

6 2/3 cup water

angkak (red rice)

Equipment:     Fermenting vessels

Procedure:

1. Preparation of the fish. Remove scales from the fish. Slice from head to tail, clean, wash and drain excess water completely. Salt and cover the fish to prevent flies from laying eggs. Allow to stand for two hours.

2. Preparation of rice. Cook the rice and cool, then blend with angkak to develop a characteristic flavor and to impart an appetite stimulating color. Pack salted fish in a mixture of salt, rice and angkak into a jar. Cover the jar with plastic bag to exclude air. Ferment for 7-10 days.  Fermentation gives a pinkish color to the mixture.

3. Cooking Saute the fermented mixture with garlic and onions. Fish flesh is soft and the originally hard bones becomes tender like a cartilage after it is cooked.
Technology developed by: Industrial Technology Development Institute (DOST)


HERBAL PLANTS FOR CHICKEN WORMS

May 17, 2006

Chickens maybe infested with roundworms which are indicated by slow growing process. Even the layers can also be infested by roundworms.

 

It was found by researchers that papaya sap can be given as a drink but it was difficult for poultry raisers to give each chicken when there are so many. Researchers from UPLB tried using finely chopped papaya leaves combined with the feeds for 3 days. Results showed that the worm infestation were controlled and destroyed. Also, powdered tobacco leaves which were dried under the sun may also be used.

 

Powdered tobacco leaves (2 parts) mixed with 12 parts feed mash and sodium sulfate is a salt solution for discharging chicken roundworms when given for 3 days.

 

 Source: Technology (PCARRD) Vol. IX, No. 3, 1987


RIPENING OF BANANA CAN BE DELAYED

May 11, 2006

Bananas (also other fruits and vegetables) emits gas called "ethylene." The presence of this gas inside the enclosed bags when transported for shipment coupled with high temperature hasten the fruit's ripening process. A food expert devised a new, low-cost treatment for prolonging the storage life of bananas and other fruits and vegetables during transport.

A charcoal-like material was placed inside a plastic bag which absorbs the ethylene gas given off by the bananas. It measures 15 x 15 x 2 cm. and soaked in a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. Two slices were placed in each plastic bag containing a bunch of banana and tied at both ends with tape. They were cooled at a constant temperature of 20° C.

Those packed in plastic bag without the charcoal-like absorbent ripened in just two weeks. The treated ones remained hard green, as if newly harvested and when the plastic bag was taken off, the fruits ripened normally.

Source: Phil. Farmers' Journal July 1980

Descriptor: Agriculture


Biopesticide

April 28, 2006

FOR CABBAGE DISEASES

One kind of bacteria attacks cabbage, whish causes its rotting. Among different chemical studied for this disease,UP Los Baños researchers found alum most effective, followed by lime.

Procedure

1. Alum – dissolve about 150 grams of alum in a liter of water (15%) and spray this at the base of the cabbage plant.

2. Lime- pulverized lime and apply this at this at the base of the plant.

Wrap the base well with lime. Do this before the disease spreads.

 

 

From: PCARRD Farmnews Nov. 30, 1985

 

Bees: pest killer

 

In 10 countries of Africa, cassava plantations were infected by the mealy bug. At that time, cassava harvests were much reduced because of this pest.

The International Institute of Tropical Farming, in 1985, released 50,000 bees to counteract these bugs. Before the event, mealy bugs numbered as much as 1,500 for every growth or branch of cassava.

The pest population was much reduced because of the bees. After the event, only about 10-20 mealy bugs could be found on every cassava plant

 

 

From: PCARRD Farmnews Dec. 1990

Spider: enemies of insect pests

 

 

At one time, the prices of oranges, calamansi and other citrus became tremendously high, as if they were imported fruits. The reason: insect pests destroyed the crops.

Researches made at PCARRD* and UP Los Baños found out that spiders preyed on these insect pests. They investigated on about six kinds of spiders that thrived in the citrus plantation of Laguna and Batangas, and saw that these spiders preyed on the citrus pests. Entrapping them in their webs.

Hence, the researchers endeavored to enhance the population of said spiders and spread them all over the citrus plantations. In this way, the use of chemical pesticides was much reduced, not only reducing cost of production but more importantly, eliminating the hazard of chemical pesticides to the farmers and the environment.

 

 

From: PCARRD Farmnews August 1987

 

PESTICIDE PLANTS FOR TERMITES

It has been researched on and tried at UP Los Baños College of Forestry that we have plants that can control termites. The most effective of these are the Balanoi and dilaw leaves. They contain methanol, which, when extracted and dissolved in water, can control termites.

Next to the above are the leaves of the Adelpha and kakawate, and weakest among those tried was the juice of the makabuhay.

The were tried on a sibukaw log that was exposed to termites for two weeks. When the extracts of the mentioned plants were sprayed on the log, no termites touched it.

 

 

From: PCARRD Farmnews July 1987